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Anonymous. 2004. Cytotoxic effect of Inonotus obliquus composition in
HCT-15 human colon and AGS gastric cancer cells. Journal of the
Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. 33:633-640.

Alves, R. E., et al. 2002. Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc Vaugh): a
rich natural source of vitamin C. Proc. Interamer. Soc. Trop. Hort.

Ajith, T. A. and K. K. Janardhanan. 2007. Indian medicinal mushrooms
as a source of antioxidant and antitumor agents. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr.

Babitskaya, V. G,, Scherba, V. V., Ikonnikova, N.V., Bisko, N.A., and
N.Y. Mitropoiskaya. 2002. Melanin complex from medicinal mushroom
Inonotus obliquus (Pers:Fr.) Pilat (Chaga) (Aphyllophoromycetidae).
Int. J. Med. Mushrooms. 4:139-45.

Bobek, P., Ozdin, L., and I. Kajaba. 1997. Dose-dependent
hypocholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in
rats. Physiol Res. 47:327-329.

Bobek, P. and S. Galbavy. 1999. Hypocholesteremic and antiatherogenic
effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus osteratus) in rabbits. Nahrung.

Burczyk, J., Gawron, A. Slotwinska, M., Smietana, B., and K.
Terminiska. 1996. Antimitotic activity of aqueous extracts of Inonotus
obliquus. Boll. Chim. Farm. 135:306.

Chang, S. T. 1999. Global impact edible and medicinal mushrooms on
human welfare in the 21st century: non-green evolution. Int. J. Med.
Mushr. 1:1-7.

Chen, C., Zheng, W., Gao, X., Xiang, X., Sun, D., Wei, J., and C. Chu.
2007. Aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) pilat
(Hymenochaetaceae) significantly inhibits the growth of sarcoma 180 by
inducing apoptosis. American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology.

Chihara, G., Maeda, Y., Sasaki, T. and F. Fukuoaka. 1969. Inhibition of
mouse sarcoma 180 by polysaccharides from Letin us eodes (Berk.)
Nature. 222:687.

Chorvathova, V., et al. 1993. Effect of oyster fungus on glycemia and
cholesterolaemia in rats with insluin-dependent diabetes. Physiol. Res.

Cui, Yo, Kim, D. S., and K. C. Park. 2005. Antioxidant effects of
Inonotus Oblique. J. Ethnopharmacol. 96:79-85.

de Sa, M. S., et al. 2009. Antimalarial activity of betulinic acid and
derivatives in vitro against Plasmodium falciprum and in vivo in P.
Berghel-infected mice. Parisitol. Res. Jul;105:275-279.

Fulda, S, et al. 1997. Betulinic acid triggers CD95 (APO-1/Fas)- and
p53-independent apoptosis via activation of capases in neuroectodermal
tumors. Cancer Research. 57:4956.

Fulda, S. 2008. Betulinic acid for cancer treatment and prevention. Int.
J. Mol. Sci. 9:1096-1107.

Fulda, S., Jeremias, I., Pietsch, T. and K. M. Debatin. Betulinic acid: a
new chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of neuroectodermal
tumors. Klin Padiatr. 211:319-322.

Gu, Y. and S. Gowsala. 2006. Cytotoxic effect of oyster mushroom
Pleurotus ostreatus on human androgen-independent prostate cancer
PC-3 cells. J. Med. Food. 9:196-204.

Ham, S. S., et al. 2003. Antimutagenic and cytotoxic effects of ethanol
extract from the Inonotus obliquus. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr.

Hawksworth, D. L. 2001. Mushrooms: the extent of the unexplored
potential. Int. J. Med. Mushr. 2:1-9.

Hossain, S., et al. 2003. Dietary mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)
ameliorates atherogenic lipid in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Clin. Exp.
Pharmacol. Physiol. 30:470-475.

Hyun, K. W., Jeong, S. C., Lee, D. H., Park, J. S., and J. S. Lee. 1996.
Isolation and characterization of a novel platelet aggregation inhibitory
peptide from the medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus. Boll. Chim.
Farm. 135:306-309.

In-Kyoung, L., Young-Sook, K., Yoon-Woo, J., Jin-Young, J., and Y.
Bong-Suk. 2007. New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal
mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Letters. 17:6678-6681.

Jeremias, I., et al. 2004. Cell death induction by betulinic acid, ceramide,
and TRAIL in primary glioblastoma multiforme cells. Acta
Neurochirurgica. 146:721-729.

Kahlos, K., Kangas, L., and R. Hiltunen. 1987. Antitumor activity of
some compounds and fractions from an n-hexane extract of Inonotus
obliquus in vitro. Acta Pharm. Fennica. 96:33-40.

Kharazmi, A. 2008. Laboratory and preclinical studies on the antiinflammatory
and anti-oxidant properties of rosehip powder—
identification and characterization of the active component GOPO.
Osteoarhritis and Cartilage. 16:55-57.

Kim, B. K., Shin, G.G., Jeong, B.S., and J.Y. Cha. 2001. Cholesterol
lowering effect of mushrooms powder in hyperlipidemic rats. J. Korean
Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 30:510-515.

Kim, Y. O., et al. 2005. Immuno-stimulatory effect of the
endopolysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus
obliquus. Life Sci. 77:2438-56.

Kim,Y. O., et al. 2006.Anti-cancer effect and structural characterization
of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.
Life Sci. 79:72-80.

Koyama, T., Yeunhwa, G., and T. Akira. 2008. Fungal medicine,
Fuscoporia obliqua, as a traditional herbal medicine, in vivo testing and
medicinal effects. Asian Biomedicine. 2:459-469.

Kraus-Zaki, J. 1957. (In Polish) ACTH jako czynnuk hydrolizujacy
kwasy dezoksyrybonukleinowe w zastosowaniu do bada
cytoenzymatycznych. Haematologica. 1:48-50.

Krauss-Zaki, J. 1962. Correspondence: Digestion of Cell Nucleus by
Enzymes. Blood Journal. 19:527.

Lindequist, U., Niedermeyer, T. H. J., and W-D Julich. 2005. The
pharmacological potential of mushrooms. Institute of Pharmacy,
Greifswald, Germany.

Lull, C., Wichers, H. J., and H. F. J. Savelkoul. 2005. Antiinflammatory
and immunomodulating properties of fungal metabolites (In) Mediators
of Inflammation. Hindawi Publishing Corp.

McCord, J. M. and I. Fridovich. 1988. Superoxide dismutase: the first
twenty years (1968-1988). Free Radic. Biol. Med. 5(5-6):363-369.

Mizuno, T., et al. 1999. Antitumor and hypoglycemic activities of
polysaccharides from Sclerotia and mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. Int. J.
Med. Mushrooms. 1:306.

Mizuno, T. 1999. The extraction and development of antitumor-active
polysaccharides from medicinal mushrooms in Japan (review). Int. J.
Med. Mushr. 1:9-30.

Mothana, R. A. A., Awadh, N. A. A., Jansen, R.,Wegner, U., Mentel, R.,
and U. Lindequist. 2003. Antiviral lanostanoid triterpenes from the
fungus Ganoderma pfeifferi BRES Fitoteraia. 74:483-485.

Mullauer, F. B., Kessler, J. H., and J. P.Medema. Betulin is a potent antitumor
agent that is enhanced by cholesterol. 2009. (by) Laboratory for
Experimental Oncology and Radiology, PLoS One; 4(4).

Muller, F. L., et al. 2006. Absence of CuZn superoxide dismutase leads
to elevated oxidative stress and acceleration of age-dependent skeletal
muscle atrophy. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 40:1993-2004.

Najafzadeh, M., et al. 2007. Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative
DNA damage in lymphocytes of patients. Biofactors. 31:191-200.

Nakagawa-Goto, K., Taniguchi, M., Tokuda, H., and K. H. Lee. 2008.
Cancer preventive agents 9. Betulinic acid derivatives as potent cancer
chemopreventive agents. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1;19:3378-3381.

Nasar-Abbas, S. M. and A. Kadir Haikman. 2004. Antimicrobial effect
of water extract of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) on the growth of some food
borne bacteria, including pathogens. J. Food Micro. 10:1016.

Nicolson, G. L., et al. 2000. Diagnosis and integrative treatment of
intercelluar bacterial infections in chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia
syndromes, GulfWar Illness, and rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic
illnesses. Clin. Prac. Alt. Med. 1:92.

Nicolson, G. L. 2002. Co-infections in fibromyalgia syndrome, chronic
fatigue syndrome, and other chronic illnesses. National Fibromyalgia
Partnership—Fibromyalgia Frontiers. 10:5-9; 27-28.

Papas, A. M. (ed). 1999. Anitoxidant Status, Diet, Nutrition, and Health.
Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Park,Y. M., et al. 2005. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive
effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus. J.
Ethnopharmacol. 101:120-128.

Park,Y. M., et al. 2007. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive
effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus. J. Med.
Food. 10:80-90.

Rein, E., Kharazmi, A., and K. Winther. 2004. A herbal remedy, Hyben
Vital (stand. Powder of Rosa canina fruits) reduces pain and improves
general welbeing in patients with osteoarthritis- a double-blind, placebo
controlled randomized trial. Phytomedicine. 11:383.

Rzymowska, J. 1996. The effect of aqueous extracts from Inonotus
obliquus on the mitotic index and enzyme activities. Boll Chim. Farm.

Sarkar, F. H. andY. Li. 2006. Using chemoprevention agents to enhance
the efficacy of cancer therapy. Cancer Res. 66:3347.

Sawada, N., et al. 2004. Betulinic acid augments the inhibitory effects of
vincristine on growth and lung metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in
mice. British Cancer Journal. 90:1672.

Scott, Cyril. 1944. Health, Diet, and Common Sense. London: the
Homeopathic Publishing Co.

Shin, Y., Tamai, Y., and M. Terazawa. 2000. Chemical constituents of
Inonotus obliquus sclerotium. Eurasian Journal of Forest Research.

Shivrina, A.N. 1967. Chemical characteristics of compounds extracted
from Inonotus obliquus. Chem. Abstr. 66:17271-17279.

Sudhakar, C., Sabitha, P., Shashi, K. R. and S. Safe. 2007. Betulinic acid
inhibits prostate cancer growth through inhibition of specificity protein
transcription factors. Cancer Research. 67:2816.

Sung, B., et al. 2008. Identification of a novel blocker of lkappaBalpha kinase
activation that enhances apoptosis and inhibits proliferation and invasion
by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB. Mol. Cancer Ther. 7:19-201.

Takada, Y. and B. B. Aggarawal. 2003. Betulinic acid suppresses
carcinogen-induced NF-kB activation through inhibition of lkappaB
alpha kinase and p65 phosphorylation: abrogation of cyclooxygenase-2
and matrix metalloprotease-9. Journal of Immunology. 171:3278.

Wang, H., Gao, J., and T. B. Ng. 2000. A new lectin with highly potent
antihepatoma and antisarcoma activities from the oyster mushroom
Pleurotus ostreatus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 275:810-816.

Wick, W., Grimmel, C., Wagenknecht, B., Dichgans, J. and M. Weller.
1999. Betulinic acid-induced apoptosis in glioma cells: A sequential
requirement for new protein synthesis, formation of reaction oxygen
species, and caspase processing. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 289:1306-

Willmann, M. et al. 2009. Characterization of NVX-207, a novel
betulinic acid-derived anti-cancer compound. Eur. J. Clin. Invest.

Winther, K., Apel, K. and G. Thamsborg. 2005. A powder made from
seeds and shells of a rose-hip subspecies (Rosa canina) reduces
symptoms of knew and hip osteoarhritis: A randomized, double-blind
placebo controlled trial. Scand J. Rheumatol. 34:302.

Yesilada, E., et al. 1997. Inhibitory effects of Turkish folk remedies on
inflammatory cytokin: interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and tumor
necrosis factor alpha. J. Ethnopharmacol. 58:59-73.

Ying-Mee, T., Yu, Rong, and J. M. Pezzuto. 2003. Betulinic acidinduced
programmed cell death in human melanoma cells involves
mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Clinical Cancer Research.

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